via University of Houston
Breathe in, breathe out. That’s how easy it is for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to enter your nose. And though remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against SARS-CoV- 2, such as the readily available Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, nothing yet – like a nasal vaccine – has been approved to provide mucosal immunity in the nose, the first barrier against the virus before it travels down to the lungs.
But now, we’re one step closer.
Navin Varadarajan, University of Houston M.D. Anderson Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and his colleagues, are reporting in iScience the development of an intranasal subunit vaccine that provides durable local immunity against inhaled pathogens.
“Mucosal vaccination can stimulate both systemic and mucosal immunity and has the advantagggggggggge of being a non-invasive procedure suitable for immunization of large populations,” said Varadarajan. “However, mucosal vaccination has been hampered by the lack of efficient delivery of the antigen and the need for appropriate adjuvants that can stimulate a robust immune response without toxicity.”
“Our results show that the candidate vaccine formulation is safe, produces rapid immune responses – within seven days – and elicits comprehensive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.”Navin Varadarajan, lead study author
To solve those problems, Varadarajan collaborated with Xinli Liu, associate professor of pharmaceutics at the UH College of Pharmacy, and an expert in nanoparticle delivery. Liu’s team was able to encapsulate the agonist of the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) within liposomal particles to yield the adjuvant named NanoSTING. The function of the adjuvant is to promote the body’s immune response.
“NanoSTING has a small particle size around 100 nanometers which exhibits significantly different physical and chemical properties to the conventional adjuvant,” said Liu.
“We used NanoSTING as the adjuvant for intranasal vaccination and single-cell RNA-sequencing to confirm the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue as an inductive site upon vaccination. Our results show that the candidate vaccine formulation is safe, produces rapid immune responses – within seven days – and elicits comprehensive immunity against SARS-CoV-2,” said Varadarajan.
“Equitable distribution requires vaccines that are stable and that can be shipped easily.”
A fundamental limitation of intramuscular vaccines is that they are not designed to elicit mucosal immunity. As prior work with other respiratory pathogens like influenza has shown, sterilizing immunity to virus re-infection requires adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract and the lung.
The nasal vaccine will also serve to equitably distribute vaccines worldwide, according to the researchers. It is estimated that first world countries have already secured and vaccinated multiple intramuscular doses for each citizen while billions of people in countries like India, South Africa, and Brazil with large outbreaks are currently not immunized. These outbreaks and viral spread are known to facilitate viral evolution leading to decreased efficacy of all vaccines.
“Equitable distribution requires vaccines that are stable and that can be shipped easily. As we have shown, each of our components, the protein (lyophilized) and the adjuvant (NanoSTING) are stable for over 11 months and can be stored and shipped without the need for freezing,” said Varadarajan.
Varadarajan is co-founder of AuraVax Therapeutics Inc., a pioneering biotech company developing novel intranasal vaccines and therapies to help patients defeat debilitating diseases, including COVID-19. The company has an exclusive license agreement with UH with respect to the intellectual property covering intranasal vaccines and STING agonist technologies. They have initiated the manufacturing process and plan to engage the FDA later this year.
Original Article: IN THROUGH THE NOSE…
The Latest on: Nasal vaccine
- Despite approval, Bharat Bio’s intranasal Covid-19 vaccine yet to hit marketon September 27, 2022 at 6:10 am
For iNcovacc to be included in the primary vaccination programme, the government needs to place order and fix prices ...
- Polio in the US: Everything to Know About Vaccines and Boosterson September 23, 2022 at 6:00 am
The CDC confirmed vaccine-derived polio circulating in New York. Here's why that's not as scary as it sounds if you were vaccinated as a kid.
- Asia to Roll Out First Inhaled and Nasal-Spray Covid Vaccineson September 21, 2022 at 8:14 pm
Regulators in China and India greenlighted distribution of vaccines delivered through the mouth or nose, but they have been far less studied than existing shots.
- Best protection against COVID-19 could be intranasal vaccineon September 16, 2022 at 5:22 am
A paper co-authored by a UB scientist explains why a vaccine delivered through the nose is key to ultimately controlling the pandemic.
- Nasal Vaccines Offer the Best Protection Against COVID-19on September 15, 2022 at 2:58 am
Immunity against COVID-19 will be possible with a nasal vaccine that leads to mucosal immunity and the development of defence against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
- Nasal Covid vaccines can be game changer: Scientistson September 14, 2022 at 2:39 pm
Holding out the promise of preventing even mild infections and blocking transmission, mucosal vaccines may well be a game changer for the Covid pandemic, say scientists as Indians gear up for the ...
- Nasal Vaccines May Not Be The Game Changer We Think They Areon September 14, 2022 at 10:28 am
Many are pinning their hopes on nasal vaccines becoming the tool that finally halts transmission of the Covid-19 virus. I do not share the same unbridled enthusiasm that nasal vaccines will provide ...
- Watch | What is a COVID-19 nasal vaccine?on September 14, 2022 at 1:20 am
The Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech, the makers of Covaxin, has got an approval for its nasal vaccine from the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation. It is for primary immunisation against ...
- Nasal COVID vaccines can be the next best thing according to scientistson September 14, 2022 at 12:23 am
Scientists claim that the newly introduced nasal Covid vaccines are easy to use, more effective and cheap, possibly with the properties to break the cycle of transmission.
- Easy to use nasal Covid vaccines can be game changer: Scientistson September 13, 2022 at 11:52 pm
A nasal, non-invasive and cheaper alternative to injectable vaccines could be just what is needed in a world battling a waning and waxing Covid wave with new variants throwing up challenges at every ...
via Bing News
The Latest on: Nasal vaccine
via Google News